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The Little Brain

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By Laura Sanders June 2, at am. Neuroscience Newly discovered cells in mice can sense four of the five tastes By Carolyn Wilke August 13, Neuroscience New guidance on brain death could ease debate over when life ends By Laura Sanders August 10, Neuroscience Boosting a liver protein may mimic the brain benefits of exercise By Laura Sanders July 9, Neuroscience The way the coronavirus messes with smell hints at how it affects the brain By Laura Sanders June 12, From the Nature Index Paid Content.

Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by e-mail. Despite being relatively small in size, the cerebellum contains more neurons than any other region of the brain, owing to its unique geometrical structure and large number of tiny granule cells.

Traditionally viewed as a coordinator of autonomic and somatic motor functions, we know that the cerebellum is essential to the coordination, precision and timing of movements.

It works by processing sensory input from the spinal cord and other parts of the brain and integrating to fine tune motor activity.

Indeed, the most noticeable symptoms of cerebellar dysfunction are motor related, collectively referred to as ataxia. Overlooked for many years, it was clear at the conference that the field of cerebellar ataxias is now evolving as a well-defined neuroscience and clinical discipline in its own right.

Mario Manto , Editor-in-Chief of The Cerebellum official journal of the SRC , highlighted that numerous case descriptions and case series on the ataxias remain unpublished, despite their importance for clinical care, basic research and personalized medicine.

Beyond the control of movements, the conference showcased a number of exciting advances into the contribution of the cerebellum to motor learning.

Leggio noted that the involvement of the cerebellum in predictive control processes for motor learning is still unclear. Interestingly, the hypothesis that detecting and generating sequences is central to our understanding of basic cerebellar function in different domains, including the cognitive domain, appears to remain an area of much debate.

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The scientists also plucked out individual neurons and measured the amount of gene activity within each cell. Most of these neuron clusters dot the top of the heart, where blood vessels come in and out.

Some of these clusters spread down the back of the heart, and were particularly abundant on the left side.

With this new view of the individual clusters, scientists can begin to study whether these groups have distinct jobs. Not a subscriber? Become one now.

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By Laura Sanders June 2, at am. Most subsequent cerebellar-learning models, however, have followed Albus in assuming that climbing fiber activity would be an error signal, and would cause synchronously activated parallel fiber inputs to be weakened.

Some of these later models, such as the Adaptive Filter model of Fujita [41] made attempts to understand cerebellar function in terms of optimal control theory.

The idea that climbing fiber activity functions as an error signal has been examined in many experimental studies, with some supporting it but others casting doubt.

Studies of the vestibulo—ocular reflex which stabilizes the visual image on the retina when the head turns found that climbing fiber activity indicated "retinal slip", although not in a very straightforward way.

One of the most extensively studied cerebellar learning tasks is the eyeblink conditioning paradigm, in which a neutral conditioned stimulus CS such as a tone or a light is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus US , such as an air puff, that elicits a blink response.

Experiments showed that lesions localized either to a specific part of the interposed nucleus one of the deep cerebellar nuclei or to a few specific points in the cerebellar cortex would abolish learning of a conditionally timed blink response.

If cerebellar outputs are pharmacologically inactivated while leaving the inputs and intracellular circuits intact, learning takes place even while the animal fails to show any response, whereas, if intracerebellar circuits are disrupted, no learning takes place—these facts taken together make a strong case that the learning, indeed, occurs inside the cerebellum.

The large base of knowledge about the anatomical structure and behavioral functions of the cerebellum have made it a fertile ground for theorizing—there are perhaps more theories of the function of the cerebellum than of any other part of the brain.

The most basic distinction among them is between "learning theories" and "performance theories"—that is, theories that make use of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum to account for its role in learning, versus theories that account for aspects of ongoing behavior on the basis of cerebellar signal processing.

Several theories of both types have been formulated as mathematical models and simulated using computers.

Perhaps the earliest "performance" theory was the "delay line" hypothesis of Valentino Braitenberg. The original theory put forth by Braitenberg and Roger Atwood in proposed that slow propagation of signals along parallel fibers imposes predictable delays that allow the cerebellum to detect time relationships within a certain window.

Theories in the "learning" category almost all derive from publications by Marr and Albus. Marr's paper proposed that the cerebellum is a device for learning to associate elemental movements encoded by climbing fibers with mossy fiber inputs that encode the sensory context.

Albus also formulated his version as a software algorithm he called a CMAC Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller , which has been tested in a number of applications.

Damage to the cerebellum often causes motor-related symptoms, the details of which depend on the part of the cerebellum involved and how it is damaged.

Damage to the flocculonodular lobe may show up as a loss of equilibrium and in particular an altered, irregular walking gait, with a wide stance caused by difficulty in balancing.

Other manifestations include hypotonia decreased muscle tone , dysarthria problems with speech articulation , dysmetria problems judging distances or ranges of movement , dysdiadochokinesia inability to perform rapid alternating movements such as walking , impaired check reflex or rebound phenomenon, and intention tremor involuntary movement caused by alternating contractions of opposing muscle groups.

Damage to the upper part of the cerebellum tends to cause gait impairments and other problems with leg coordination; damage to the lower part is more likely to cause uncoordinated or poorly aimed movements of the arms and hands, as well as difficulties in speed.

To identify cerebellar problems, neurological examination includes assessment of gait a broad-based gait being indicative of ataxia , finger-pointing tests and assessment of posture.

The list of medical problems that can produce cerebellar damage is long, including stroke , hemorrhage , swelling of the brain cerebral edema , tumors , alcoholism , physical trauma such as gunshot wounds or explosives, and chronic degenerative conditions such as olivopontocerebellar atrophy.

The human cerebellum changes with age. These changes may differ from those of other parts of the brain.

The cerebellum is the youngest brain region and body part in centenarians according to an epigenetic biomarker of tissue age known as epigenetic clock : it is about 15 years younger than expected in a centenarian.

Congenital malformation, hereditary disorders, and acquired conditions can affect cerebellar structure and, consequently, cerebellar function. Unless the causative condition is reversible, the only possible treatment is to help people live with their problems.

In normal development, endogenous sonic hedgehog signaling stimulates rapid proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron progenitors CGNPs in the external granule layer EGL.

Cerebellar development occurs during late embryogenesis and the early postnatal period, with CGNP proliferation in the EGL peaking during early development postnatal day 7 in the mouse.

Congenital malformation or underdevelopment hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis is a characteristic of both Dandy—Walker syndrome and Joubert syndrome.

Other conditions that are closely linked to cerebellar degeneration include the idiopathic progressive neurological disorders multiple system atrophy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome type I , [69] [70] and the autoimmune disorder paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration , in which tumors elsewhere in the body elicit an autoimmune response that causes neuronal loss in the cerebellum.

Cerebellar atrophy has been observed in many other neurological disorders including Huntington's disease , multiple sclerosis , [55] essential tremor , progressive myoclonus epilepsy , and Niemann—Pick disease.

Cerebellar atrophy can also occur as a result of exposure to toxins including heavy metals or pharmaceutical or recreational drugs.

There is a general consensus that the cerebellum is involved in pain processing. Some of this information is transferred to the motor system inducing a conscious motor avoidance of pain, graded according to pain intensity.

These direct pain inputs, as well as indirect inputs, are thought to induce long-term pain avoidance behavior that results in chronic posture changes and consequently, in functional and anatomical remodeling of vestibular and proprioceptive nuclei.

As a result, chronic neuropathic pain can induce macroscopic anatomical remodeling of the hindbrain, including the cerebellum. The circuits in the cerebellum are similar across all classes of vertebrates , including fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

There is considerable variation in the size and shape of the cerebellum in different vertebrate species. In amphibians , it is little developed, and in lampreys , and hagfish , the cerebellum is barely distinguishable from the brain-stem.

Although the spinocerebellum is present in these groups, the primary structures are small, paired-nuclei corresponding to the vestibulocerebellum.

The large paired and convoluted lobes found in humans are typical of mammals, but the cerebellum is, in general, a single median lobe in other groups, and is either smooth or only slightly grooved.

In mammals, the neocerebellum is the major part of the cerebellum by mass, but, in other vertebrates, it is typically the spinocerebellum.

The cerebellum of cartilaginous and bony fishes is extraordinarily large and complex. In at least one important respect, it differs in internal structure from the mammalian cerebellum: The fish cerebellum does not contain discrete deep cerebellar nuclei.

Instead, the primary targets of Purkinje cells are a distinct type of cell distributed across the cerebellar cortex, a type not seen in mammals.

In mormyrid fish a family of weakly electrosensitive freshwater fish , the cerebellum is considerably larger than the rest of the brain put together.

The largest part of it is a special structure called the valvula , which has an unusually regular architecture and receives much of its input from the electrosensory system.

The hallmark of the mammalian cerebellum is an expansion of the lateral lobes, whose main interactions are with the neocortex. As monkeys evolved into great apes, the expansion of the lateral lobes continued, in tandem with the expansion of the frontal lobes of the neocortex.

In ancestral hominids, and in Homo sapiens until the middle Pleistocene period, the cerebellum continued to expand, but the frontal lobes expanded more rapidly.

The most recent period of human evolution, however, may actually have been associated with an increase in the relative size of the cerebellum, as the neocortex reduced its size somewhat while the cerebellum expanded.

They show that either the development of the cerebellum is tightly linked to that of the rest of the brain or that neural activities taking place in the cerebellum were important during Hominidae evolution.

Due to the cerebellum's role in cognitive functions, the increase in its size may have played a role in cognitive expansion. Most vertebrate species have a cerebellum and one or more cerebellum-like structures, brain areas that resemble the cerebellum in terms of cytoarchitecture and neurochemistry.

The DCN is a layered structure, with the bottom layer containing granule cells similar to those of the cerebellum, giving rise to parallel fibers that rise to the superficial layer and travel across it horizontally.

The superficial layer contains a set of GABAergic neurons called cartwheel cells that resemble Purkinje cells anatomically and chemically—they receive parallel fiber input, but do not have any inputs that resemble climbing fibers.

The output neurons of the DCN are pyramidal cells. They are glutamatergic, but also resemble Purkinje cells in some respects—they have spiny, flattened superficial dendritic trees that receive parallel fiber input, but they also have basal dendrites that receive input from auditory nerve fibers, which travel across the DCN in a direction at right angles to the parallel fibers.

The DCN is most highly developed in rodents and other small animals, and is considerably reduced in primates.

Its function is not well understood; the most popular speculations relate it to spatial hearing in one way or another.

Most species of fish and amphibians possess a lateral line system that senses pressure waves in water. One of the brain areas that receives primary input from the lateral line organ, the medial octavolateral nucleus, has a cerebellum-like structure, with granule cells and parallel fibers.

In electrosensitive fish, the input from the electrosensory system goes to the dorsal octavolateral nucleus, which also has a cerebellum-like structure.

In ray-finned fishes by far the largest group , the optic tectum has a layer—the marginal layer—that is cerebellum-like. All of these cerebellum-like structures appear to be primarily sensory-related rather than motor-related.

All of them have granule cells that give rise to parallel fibers that connect to Purkinje-like neurons with modifiable synapses , but none have climbing fibers comparable to those of the cerebellum—instead they receive direct input from peripheral sensory organs.

None has a demonstrated function, but the most influential speculation is that they serve to transform sensory inputs in some sophisticated way, perhaps to compensate for changes in body posture.

Bower and others have argued, partly on the basis of these structures and partly on the basis of cerebellar studies, that the cerebellum itself is fundamentally a sensory structure, and that it contributes to motor control by moving the body in a way that controls the resulting sensory signals.

Even the earliest anatomists were able to recognize the cerebellum by its distinctive appearance. Galen's extensive description is the earliest that survives.

He speculated that the cerebellum was the source of motor nerves. Further significant developments did not come until the Renaissance.

Vesalius discussed the cerebellum briefly, and the anatomy was described more thoroughly by Thomas Willis in More anatomical work was done during the 18th century, but it was not until early in the 19th century that the first insights into the function of the cerebellum were obtained.

Luigi Rolando in established the key finding that damage to the cerebellum results in motor disturbances.

Jean Pierre Flourens in the first half of the 19th century carried out detailed experimental work, which revealed that animals with cerebellar damage can still move, but with a loss of coordination strange movements, awkward gait, and muscular weakness , and that recovery after the lesion can be nearly complete unless the lesion is very extensive.

The name cerebellum is a diminutive of cerebrum brain ; [88] it can be translated literally as little brain. This article was submitted to WikiJournal of Medicine for external academic peer review in reviewer reports.

The version of record as reviewed is: Marion Wright; William E. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the smaller region in the lower part of the brain. For the large region of the brain, see Cerebrum. Structure at the rear of the vertebrate brain, beneath the cerebrum.

Main article: Anatomy of the cerebellum. Microcircuitry of the cerebellum Abbreviations and representations. Transverse section of a cerebellar folium , showing principal cell types and connections.

Main article: Deep cerebellar nuclei. Illustration from of the altered walking gait of a woman with cerebellar disease.

The lower trace shows an attempt by a patient with cerebellar disease to reproduce the upper trace. Main article: Cerebellar ataxia.

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