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The following year, he was called "Hobbehod", and also came to known as "Robert Hood". Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw.
Owen in floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between and Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War , specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham.
John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham.
John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth. While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until , his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw.
The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering.
Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.
David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd , who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort , which would place Robin Hood around the s.
John Maddicott has called Godberd "that prototype Robin Hood". The antiquarian Joseph Hunter — believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century.
Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw:. Hunter developed a fairly detailed theory implying that Robert Hood had been an adherent of the rebel Earl of Lancaster , who was defeated by Edward II at the Battle of Boroughbridge in According to this theory, Robert Hood was thereafter pardoned and employed as a bodyguard by King Edward, and in consequence he appears in the court roll under the name of "Robyn Hode".
Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.
It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott , that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development.
While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie , which were based on historical events.
Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light.
The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest , in Nottinghamshire.
His chronicle entry reads:. Mary in the village of Edwinstowe and most famously of all, the Major Oak also located at the village of Edwinstowe.
Dendrologists have contradicted this claim by estimating the tree's true age at around eight hundred years; it would have been relatively a sapling in Robin's time, at best.
Nottinghamshire's claim to Robin Hood's heritage is disputed, with Yorkists staking a claim to the outlaw. In demonstrating Yorkshire's Robin Hood heritage, the historian J.
Holt drew attention to the fact that although Sherwood Forest is mentioned in Robin Hood and the Monk , there is little information about the topography of the region, and thus suggested that Robin Hood was drawn to Nottinghamshire through his interactions with the city's sheriff.
Robin Hood's Yorkshire origins are generally accepted by professional historians. A tradition dating back at least to the end of the 16th century gives Robin Hood's birthplace as Loxley , Sheffield , in South Yorkshire.
The original Robin Hood ballads, which originate from the fifteenth century, set events in the medieval forest of Barnsdale.
Barnsdale was a wooded area covering an expanse of no more than thirty square miles, ranging six miles from north to south, with the River Went at Wentbridge near Pontefract forming its northern boundary and the villages of Skelbrooke and Hampole forming the southernmost region.
From east to west the forest extended about five miles, from Askern on the east to Badsworth in the west. During the medieval age Wentbridge was sometimes locally referred to by the name of Barnsdale because it was the predominant settlement in the forest.
And, while Wentbridge is not directly named in A Gest of Robyn Hode , the poem does appear to make a cryptic reference to the locality by depicting a poor knight explaining to Robin Hood that he 'went at a bridge' where there was wrestling'.
The Gest makes a specific reference to the Saylis at Wentbridge. Credit is due to the nineteenth-century antiquarian Joseph Hunter , who correctly identified the site of the Saylis.
The Saylis is recorded as having contributed towards the aid that was granted to Edward III in —47 for the knighting of the Black Prince.
An acre of landholding is listed within a glebe terrier of relating to Kirk Smeaton , which later came to be called "Sailes Close".
Taylor indicate that such evidence of continuity makes it virtually certain that the Saylis that was so well known to Robin Hood is preserved today as "Sayles Plantation".
One final locality in the forest of Barnsdale that is associated with Robin Hood is the village of Campsall. Davis indicates that there is only one church dedicated to Mary Magdalene within what one might reasonably consider to have been the medieval forest of Barnsdale, and that is the church at Campsall.
The church was built in the late eleventh century by Robert de Lacy, the 2nd Baron of Pontefract. The backdrop of St Mary's Abbey, York plays a central role in the Gest as the poor knight whom Robin aids owes money to the abbot.
At Kirklees Priory in West Yorkshire stands an alleged grave with a spurious inscription, which relates to Robin Hood.
The fifteenth-century ballads relate that before he died, Robin told Little John where to bury him. He shot an arrow from the Priory window, and where the arrow landed was to be the site of his grave.
The Gest states that the Prioress was a relative of Robin's. Robin was ill and staying at the Priory where the Prioress was supposedly caring for him.
However, she betrayed him, his health worsened, and he eventually died there. The inscription on the grave reads,.
Despite the unconventional spelling, the verse is in Modern English , not the Middle English of the 13th century. The date is also incorrectly formatted — using the Roman calendar , "24 kal Decembris" would be the twenty-third day before the beginning of December, that is, 8 November.
The tomb probably dates from the late eighteenth century. The grave with the inscription is within sight of the ruins of the Kirklees Priory, behind the Three Nuns pub in Mirfield , West Yorkshire.
Though local folklore suggests that Robin is buried in the grounds of Kirklees Priory , this theory has now largely been abandoned by professional historians.
Another theory is that Robin Hood died at Kirkby, Pontefract. Michael Drayton 's Poly-Olbion Song 28 67—70 , published in , speaks of Robin Hood's death and clearly states that the outlaw died at 'Kirkby'.
The location is approximately three miles from the site of Robin's robberies at the now famous Saylis. All Saints' Church had a priory hospital attached to it.
The Tudor historian Richard Grafton stated that the prioress who murdered Robin Hood buried the outlaw beside the road,. Where he had used to rob and spoyle those that passed that way All Saints' Church at Kirkby, modern Pontefract, which was located approximately three miles from the site of Robin Hood's robberies at the Saylis, is consistent with Richard Grafton's description because a road ran directly from Wentbridge to the hospital at Kirkby.
Within close proximity of Wentbridge reside several notable landmarks relating to Robin Hood. One such place-name location occurred in a cartulary deed of from Monkbretton Priory, which makes direct reference to a landmark named Robin Hood's Stone, which resided upon the eastern side of the Great North Road, a mile south of Barnsdale Bar.
Robin Hood type place-names occurred particularly everywhere except Sherwood. The first place-name in Sherwood does not appear until the year The Sheriff of Nottingham also had jurisdiction in Derbyshire that was known as the "Shire of the Deer", and this is where the Royal Forest of the Peak is found, which roughly corresponds to today's Peak District National Park.
Mercia , to which Nottingham belonged, came to within three miles of Sheffield City Centre. But before the Law of the Normans was the Law of the Danes, The Danelaw had a similar boundary to that of Mercia but had a population of Free Peasantry that were known to have resisted the Norman occupation.
Many outlaws could have been created by the refusal to recognise Norman Forest Law. Further indications of the legend's connection with West Yorkshire and particularly Calderdale are noted in the fact that there are pubs called the Robin Hood in both nearby Brighouse and at Cragg Vale ; higher up in the Pennines beyond Halifax , where Robin Hood Rocks can also be found.
Considering these references to Robin Hood, it is not surprising that the people of both South and West Yorkshire lay some claim to Robin Hood, who, if he existed, could easily have roamed between Nottingham, Lincoln , Doncaster and right into West Yorkshire.
A British Army Territorial reserves battalion formed in Nottingham in was known as The Robin Hood Battalion through various reorganisations until the "Robin Hood" name finally disappeared in A Neolithic causewayed enclosure on Salisbury Plain has acquired the name Robin Hood's Ball , although had Robin Hood existed it is doubtful that he would have travelled so far south.
Ballads dating back to the 15th century are the oldest existing form of the Robin Hood legends, although none of them were recorded at the time of the first allusions to him, and many are from much later.
They share many common features, often opening with praise of the greenwood and relying heavily on disguise as a plot device , but include a wide variation in tone and plot.
Ballads whose first recorded version appears usually incomplete in the Percy Folio may appear in later versions  and may be much older than the midth century when the Folio was compiled.
Any ballad may be older than the oldest copy that happens to survive, or descended from a lost older ballad.
For example, the plot of Robin Hood's Death , found in the Percy Folio, is summarised in the 15th-century A Gest of Robyn Hode , and it also appears in an 18th-century version.
The first two ballads listed here the "Death" and "Gisborne" , although preserved in 17th-century copies, are generally agreed to preserve the substance of late medieval ballads.
The third the "Curtal Friar" and the fourth the "Butcher" , also probably have late medieval origins. Some ballads, such as Erlinton , feature Robin Hood in some variants, where the folk hero appears to be added to a ballad pre-existing him and in which he does not fit very well.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Robin Hood disambiguation. Arthur Bourchier James Booth M. Main articles: Robin Hood in popular culture and List of films and television series featuring Robin Hood.
Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on 16 November Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 15 April The Gest of Robyn Hode".
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By Androw of Wyntoun.